Effect of adding androgen deprivation therapy to permanent iodine-125 implantation with or without external beam radiation therapy on the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer: A propensity score–matched analysis

Shinya Sutani, Atsunori Yorozu, Kazuhito Toya, Yutaka Shiraishi, Toru Nishiyama, Yasuto Yagi, Ken Nakamura, Shiro Saito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy on oncological outcomes in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Overall, 1,171 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy with or without ADT between 2003 and 2013 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to counter biases between the ADT and non-ADT groups. The biochemical failure-free rate (bFFR), local recurrence-free rate, and overall survival rate were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier curves, and predictors were identified using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: After propensity score matching, 405 patients were included in each group. The median followup duration was 9.1 years; the median ADT duration was 6 months. In the ADT versus non-ADT groups, the 9-year bFFR, local recurrence-free rate, and overall survival rate were 93.4% versus 87.8% (p = 0.016), 96.9% versus 98.1% (p = 0.481), and 88.1% versus 90.4% (p = 0.969), respectively. On multivariate analyses, Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58–4.03) and ADT use (HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34–0.89) were associated with biochemical failure. Supplemental external beam radiation therapy use (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16–0.91) was associated with lower local recurrence rates. Age (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08–1.16) and comorbidities (HR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04–2.34) were associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions: A risk-benefit assessment between bFFR improvement and the potential side effects of adding ADT to brachytherapy-based radiotherapy is warranted before incorporating ADT as routine practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-18
Number of pages9
JournalBrachytherapy
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 1

Keywords

  • Androgen deprivation therapy
  • Brachytherapy
  • Intermediate risk
  • Low-dose-rate
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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