Malignant gliomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiation and more effective options for treatment are urgently needed. We reported previously that the aromatic amide brefelamide, which is isolated from methanolic extracts of the cellular slime molds Dictyostelium giganteum and D. brefeldianum, hinders cellular proliferation in a glioma model utilizing 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we examined the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of 1321N1 cell proliferation by brefelamide. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was found to enhance the rate of proliferation of serum-free cultured 1321N1 cells, but did not affect proliferation in PC12 cells. Brefelamide pretreatment inhibited GDNF-induced cell proliferation and expression of rearranged during transfection (RET). GDNF enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AKT, and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK); however, brefelamide pretreatment inhibited these effects. Brefelamide also reduced the expression of GDNF mRNA and GDNF secretion. Together, the findings from this study indicate that brefelamide inhibits the proliferation of 1321N1 cell via several mechanisms including reduced GDNF receptor expression and GDNF secretion, and reduced phosphorylation of ERK, AKT, and JNK.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science