Effect of nickel pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of BGA lead-free solder joints

Masaki Omiya, Takeshi Miyazaki, Kikuo Kishimoto, Masazumi Amagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present our work on the effect of nickel (Ni) pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of lead-free solder joints after thermal aging. Cyclic three-point bending tests were carried out to investigate the relationship between intermetallic compound (IMC) layer development and the fatigue life of solder joints. After the fatigue tests, cross-sections of solder joint were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crack propagation paths were investigated. The results show that when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thin, voids in the solder were observed and the fatigue life of the solder joints was shortened. On the other hand, when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thick, thick IMC layers between the solder layer and the Ni layer developed after thermal aging. The optimum thickness of Ni pad metallization layer in this study was either 0.08 or 0.12 μm. For these thicknesses, the Ni layer diffused into the solder and was consumed completely. For these conditions, the development of an IMC layer did not occur during the thermal aging, and good fatigue strengths were obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)734-740
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

Metallizing
Nickel
Soldering alloys
Fatigue of materials
Thermal aging
Intermetallics
Bending tests
Lead-free solders
Crack propagation
Scanning electron microscopy

Keywords

  • Ball grid array
  • Fatigue
  • Intermetallic compound
  • Lead-free solder
  • Nickel
  • Solder joint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

Effect of nickel pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of BGA lead-free solder joints. / Omiya, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Amagai, Masazumi.

In: IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2008, p. 734-740.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5ae4bad8187b48f09fa66498c86d243a,
title = "Effect of nickel pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of BGA lead-free solder joints",
abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to present our work on the effect of nickel (Ni) pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of lead-free solder joints after thermal aging. Cyclic three-point bending tests were carried out to investigate the relationship between intermetallic compound (IMC) layer development and the fatigue life of solder joints. After the fatigue tests, cross-sections of solder joint were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crack propagation paths were investigated. The results show that when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thin, voids in the solder were observed and the fatigue life of the solder joints was shortened. On the other hand, when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thick, thick IMC layers between the solder layer and the Ni layer developed after thermal aging. The optimum thickness of Ni pad metallization layer in this study was either 0.08 or 0.12 μm. For these thicknesses, the Ni layer diffused into the solder and was consumed completely. For these conditions, the development of an IMC layer did not occur during the thermal aging, and good fatigue strengths were obtained.",
keywords = "Ball grid array, Fatigue, Intermetallic compound, Lead-free solder, Nickel, Solder joint",
author = "Masaki Omiya and Takeshi Miyazaki and Kikuo Kishimoto and Masazumi Amagai",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1109/TCAPT.2008.2001841",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "734--740",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies",
issn = "1521-3331",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of nickel pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of BGA lead-free solder joints

AU - Omiya, Masaki

AU - Miyazaki, Takeshi

AU - Kishimoto, Kikuo

AU - Amagai, Masazumi

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - The purpose of this paper is to present our work on the effect of nickel (Ni) pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of lead-free solder joints after thermal aging. Cyclic three-point bending tests were carried out to investigate the relationship between intermetallic compound (IMC) layer development and the fatigue life of solder joints. After the fatigue tests, cross-sections of solder joint were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crack propagation paths were investigated. The results show that when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thin, voids in the solder were observed and the fatigue life of the solder joints was shortened. On the other hand, when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thick, thick IMC layers between the solder layer and the Ni layer developed after thermal aging. The optimum thickness of Ni pad metallization layer in this study was either 0.08 or 0.12 μm. For these thicknesses, the Ni layer diffused into the solder and was consumed completely. For these conditions, the development of an IMC layer did not occur during the thermal aging, and good fatigue strengths were obtained.

AB - The purpose of this paper is to present our work on the effect of nickel (Ni) pad metallization thickness on fatigue failure of lead-free solder joints after thermal aging. Cyclic three-point bending tests were carried out to investigate the relationship between intermetallic compound (IMC) layer development and the fatigue life of solder joints. After the fatigue tests, cross-sections of solder joint were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crack propagation paths were investigated. The results show that when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thin, voids in the solder were observed and the fatigue life of the solder joints was shortened. On the other hand, when the thickness of the Ni pad metallization layer was too thick, thick IMC layers between the solder layer and the Ni layer developed after thermal aging. The optimum thickness of Ni pad metallization layer in this study was either 0.08 or 0.12 μm. For these thicknesses, the Ni layer diffused into the solder and was consumed completely. For these conditions, the development of an IMC layer did not occur during the thermal aging, and good fatigue strengths were obtained.

KW - Ball grid array

KW - Fatigue

KW - Intermetallic compound

KW - Lead-free solder

KW - Nickel

KW - Solder joint

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=54849377200&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=54849377200&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TCAPT.2008.2001841

DO - 10.1109/TCAPT.2008.2001841

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:54849377200

VL - 31

SP - 734

EP - 740

JO - IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies

JF - IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies

SN - 1521-3331

IS - 3

ER -