Effect on the atherogenic marker plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 of addition of the ACE inhibitor imidapril to angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist therapy in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism

A prospective cohort study in primary care

Ken Yajima, Akira Shimada, Hiroshi Hirose, Yoichi Oikawa, Satoru Yamada, Shu Meguro, Junichiro Irie, Seiko Irie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Objective: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), are recommended by the American Diabetes Association for blood pressure control and prevention or management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, some investigators have suggested that ARBs may increase the risk of myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Activation of the RAS is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic events. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are reported to reduce PAI-1 levels and activity, while ARBs do not reduce or may even elevate levels of this atherogenic marker. The objective of this study was to determine whether the ACE inhibitor imidapril reduces PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients already being treated with an ARB. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study carried out in primary care with a follow-up period of 6 months. Estimating the α error (p-value) at 0.05, the power of the test as 80%, and the difference in PAI-1 levels as 10 ± 15 ng/mL, the required sample size was calculated to be 40. Participants were hypertensive patients taking ARBs for more than 8 weeks, and having dyslipidaemia, obesity or abnormal glucose metabolism. Imidapril 5-10 mg/day was prescribed for 6 months to reduce blood pressure to <130/80 mmHg. The main outcome measure, PAI-1 level, was measured before and 6 months after the addition of imidapril to ARBs in 21 subjects (13 men, eight women), all with abnormal glucose metabolism, nine with dyslipidaemia, and six who were obese. Bodyweight, body mass index, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated haemoglobin, creatinine, potassium, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured as secondary outcomes. Results: PAI-1 level was not significantly changed overall. Hs-CRP level was also not significantly changed; however, the high molecular weight adiponectin level was significantly increased (p = 0.044), especially in men (p = 0.026). There were no significant changes in the other outcomes measured. Conclusion: The current study showed that imidapril added to ARBs did not decrease PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism; however, this combination therapy significantly increased high molecular weight adiponectin levels in men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-819
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Drug Investigation
Volume29
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Primary Health Care
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Glucose
Adiponectin
Molecular Weight
Renin-Angiotensin System
Dyslipidemias
Blood Pressure
Therapeutics
Cardiovascular Diseases
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
imidapril
Angiotensin II
C-Reactive Protein
Sample Size

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

@article{f5d93c4fdd8343a39cbe38dfb1f80e58,
title = "Effect on the atherogenic marker plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 of addition of the ACE inhibitor imidapril to angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist therapy in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism: A prospective cohort study in primary care",
abstract = "Background and Objective: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), are recommended by the American Diabetes Association for blood pressure control and prevention or management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, some investigators have suggested that ARBs may increase the risk of myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Activation of the RAS is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic events. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are reported to reduce PAI-1 levels and activity, while ARBs do not reduce or may even elevate levels of this atherogenic marker. The objective of this study was to determine whether the ACE inhibitor imidapril reduces PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients already being treated with an ARB. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study carried out in primary care with a follow-up period of 6 months. Estimating the α error (p-value) at 0.05, the power of the test as 80{\%}, and the difference in PAI-1 levels as 10 ± 15 ng/mL, the required sample size was calculated to be 40. Participants were hypertensive patients taking ARBs for more than 8 weeks, and having dyslipidaemia, obesity or abnormal glucose metabolism. Imidapril 5-10 mg/day was prescribed for 6 months to reduce blood pressure to <130/80 mmHg. The main outcome measure, PAI-1 level, was measured before and 6 months after the addition of imidapril to ARBs in 21 subjects (13 men, eight women), all with abnormal glucose metabolism, nine with dyslipidaemia, and six who were obese. Bodyweight, body mass index, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated haemoglobin, creatinine, potassium, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured as secondary outcomes. Results: PAI-1 level was not significantly changed overall. Hs-CRP level was also not significantly changed; however, the high molecular weight adiponectin level was significantly increased (p = 0.044), especially in men (p = 0.026). There were no significant changes in the other outcomes measured. Conclusion: The current study showed that imidapril added to ARBs did not decrease PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism; however, this combination therapy significantly increased high molecular weight adiponectin levels in men.",
author = "Ken Yajima and Akira Shimada and Hiroshi Hirose and Yoichi Oikawa and Satoru Yamada and Shu Meguro and Junichiro Irie and Seiko Irie",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.2165/11530610-000000000-00000",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "811--819",
journal = "Clinical Drug Investigation",
issn = "1173-2563",
publisher = "Adis International Ltd",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect on the atherogenic marker plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 of addition of the ACE inhibitor imidapril to angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist therapy in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism

T2 - A prospective cohort study in primary care

AU - Yajima, Ken

AU - Shimada, Akira

AU - Hirose, Hiroshi

AU - Oikawa, Yoichi

AU - Yamada, Satoru

AU - Meguro, Shu

AU - Irie, Junichiro

AU - Irie, Seiko

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Background and Objective: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), are recommended by the American Diabetes Association for blood pressure control and prevention or management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, some investigators have suggested that ARBs may increase the risk of myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Activation of the RAS is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic events. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are reported to reduce PAI-1 levels and activity, while ARBs do not reduce or may even elevate levels of this atherogenic marker. The objective of this study was to determine whether the ACE inhibitor imidapril reduces PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients already being treated with an ARB. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study carried out in primary care with a follow-up period of 6 months. Estimating the α error (p-value) at 0.05, the power of the test as 80%, and the difference in PAI-1 levels as 10 ± 15 ng/mL, the required sample size was calculated to be 40. Participants were hypertensive patients taking ARBs for more than 8 weeks, and having dyslipidaemia, obesity or abnormal glucose metabolism. Imidapril 5-10 mg/day was prescribed for 6 months to reduce blood pressure to <130/80 mmHg. The main outcome measure, PAI-1 level, was measured before and 6 months after the addition of imidapril to ARBs in 21 subjects (13 men, eight women), all with abnormal glucose metabolism, nine with dyslipidaemia, and six who were obese. Bodyweight, body mass index, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated haemoglobin, creatinine, potassium, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured as secondary outcomes. Results: PAI-1 level was not significantly changed overall. Hs-CRP level was also not significantly changed; however, the high molecular weight adiponectin level was significantly increased (p = 0.044), especially in men (p = 0.026). There were no significant changes in the other outcomes measured. Conclusion: The current study showed that imidapril added to ARBs did not decrease PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism; however, this combination therapy significantly increased high molecular weight adiponectin levels in men.

AB - Background and Objective: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), are recommended by the American Diabetes Association for blood pressure control and prevention or management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, some investigators have suggested that ARBs may increase the risk of myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Activation of the RAS is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic events. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are reported to reduce PAI-1 levels and activity, while ARBs do not reduce or may even elevate levels of this atherogenic marker. The objective of this study was to determine whether the ACE inhibitor imidapril reduces PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients already being treated with an ARB. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study carried out in primary care with a follow-up period of 6 months. Estimating the α error (p-value) at 0.05, the power of the test as 80%, and the difference in PAI-1 levels as 10 ± 15 ng/mL, the required sample size was calculated to be 40. Participants were hypertensive patients taking ARBs for more than 8 weeks, and having dyslipidaemia, obesity or abnormal glucose metabolism. Imidapril 5-10 mg/day was prescribed for 6 months to reduce blood pressure to <130/80 mmHg. The main outcome measure, PAI-1 level, was measured before and 6 months after the addition of imidapril to ARBs in 21 subjects (13 men, eight women), all with abnormal glucose metabolism, nine with dyslipidaemia, and six who were obese. Bodyweight, body mass index, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated haemoglobin, creatinine, potassium, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured as secondary outcomes. Results: PAI-1 level was not significantly changed overall. Hs-CRP level was also not significantly changed; however, the high molecular weight adiponectin level was significantly increased (p = 0.044), especially in men (p = 0.026). There were no significant changes in the other outcomes measured. Conclusion: The current study showed that imidapril added to ARBs did not decrease PAI-1 levels in hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism; however, this combination therapy significantly increased high molecular weight adiponectin levels in men.

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JO - Clinical Drug Investigation

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