The effects of rapid hemorrhage on coagulopathy have been reported. However, the effects of different hemorrhage speeds on the blood coagulation/fibrinolysis system have not been investigated. This study aimed to compare different hemorrhage speeds for clarifying their effects on the coagulation/fibrinolysis system and circulation disorders in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (301-396 g) were randomly assigned to five groups depending on hemorrhage speed and length of procedure: first, rapid (1.4 ml/min, 30-min bleeding); second, rapid-L (1.4 ml/min, 30-min bleeding and observation until 6 h); third, slow (0.1 ml/min, intermittently, 6-h bleeding); fourth, control (30-min observation); and fifth, control-L (6-h observation). Hemorrhage was induced by withdrawing blood until 40% of the estimated blood volume from the femoral artery. We measured vital signs, hematology, general chemistry, blood gas status, coagulation parameters, fibrinolytic markers [tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor one (PAI-1)], vascular endothelial damage (syndecan-1), and liver PAI-1 mRNA expression. Rapid hemorrhage induced elevation of lactate and syndecan-1 levels and prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in the rapid group. In contrast, slow hemorrhage did not induce these changes. Hemorrhage speed had no effect on plasma tissue-type plasminogen activator and hematology. Plasma PAI-1 levels were significantly increased in the rapid-L group, while liver PAI-1 mRNA levels were increased in the slow group. This study shows changes in the circulatory and fibrinolysis systems, depending on the hemorrhage speed. Hemorrhage might promote production of PAI-1, while tissue hypoxia due to rapid hemorrhage might promote release of PAI-1.
- hemorrhage speed
- plasminogen activator inhibitor one
ASJC Scopus subject areas