In previous studies (W. Jiang, S.M. Kahn, P. Zhou, Y.-J. Zhang, A.M. Cacace, A.S. Infance, Y. Doi, R.M. Santella, and I.B. Weinstein 1993, Oncogene 8, 3447-3457) we reported that stable overexpression of cyclin D1 in R6 rat embryo fibroblasts shortens the G1 phase and impairs growth control. In the present study we examined the effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on other events involved in the G1 to S progression, utilizing the overexpressor cell line R6-ccnD1. We found that when compared to R6 control cells, serum- starved quiescent R6-ccnD1 cells had not only increased levels of the cyclin D1 protein but also increased levels of the cyclin E protein. The latter protein was complexed to phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). However, in quiescent serum-starved R6-ccnD1 cells this cyclin E-CKD2 complex lacked in vitro kinase activity due to the presence of a heat-stable inhibitory activity, apparently reflecting the inhibitory effects of the CDK inhibitors (CDK1s) p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1). Serum stimulation of the quiescent R6-ccnD1 cells was associated with a loss of this inhibitory activity and a decrease in the levels of the latter two proteins, as the cells progressed through the G1 phase. On the other hand, serum stimulation of the control R6 cells was associated with both induction of cyclin E and increased levels of phosphorylated CDK2 proteins and decreased levels of p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1), as the cells progressed through the G1 phase. Thus, even though over-expression of cyclin D1 can induce the expression of cyclin E and phosphorylated CDK2, premature activation of cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity in quiescent cells or during progression through G1 appears to be blocked by CDK1s. Nevertheless, the R6ccnD1 cells have a shorter G1 phase than the control cells presumably due to the high levels of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of cyclin D, which is frequently seen in human tumors, can have complex effects on the expression of other genes that control cell cycle progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology