Effects of Hop Bitter Acids, Bitter Components in Beer, on Cognition in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Takafumi Fukuda, Kuniaki Obara, Jiro Saito, Satoshi Umeda, Yasuhisa Ano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


The present study aimed to investigate the effects of matured hop bitter acids (MHBAs) on human cognition, mental fatigue, and mood state. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 60 healthy adults (age 45-64 years) with self-awareness of cognitive decline were randomly divided into 2 groups and received either orally administered MHBAs (35 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Cognitive functions and mental states were assessed using neuropsychological tests or questionnaires at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 of the intervention. The change in verbal fluency score at week 6 compared with that at baseline was significantly higher in the MHBAs-treated group compared with that in the placebo group (P = 0.034), and Stroop test score at week 12 was significantly lower in the MHBAs-treated group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, subjective fatigue and anxiety at week 12 were significantly improved in the MHBAs-treated group (P = 0.008 and 0.043, respectively) compared with the placebo group. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of bitter ingredients in beer on cognition, subjective mood, and mental fatigue in a clinical trial. Our findings suggest that hop-derived bitter acids might be beneficial for cognition and mood state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-212
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 8



  • cognitive function
  • herbs
  • hop bitter acids
  • mental fatigue
  • mood state

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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