Driving simulator usage is often accompanied by motion sickness, and techniques for its prevention are not yet established. To reduce visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), we investigated the effects of synchronised presentation of engine sounds and motorcycle vibration on VIMS. A total of 80 participants experienced a driving scene with a head-mounted display for 5 minutes with or without synchronised presentation of engine sound and vibration. The results showed that VIMS scores, as measured by the Fast Motion Sickness scale, were significantly lower in participants who experienced the driving scene with sounds and vibration than in those who experienced the scene with sounds only, vibration only, or neither. Multiple regression analyses revealed that susceptibility to VIMS consistently explained the severity of VIMS to some extent but not with perceived realism of the virtual reality (VR) scene, sex, and experiences about VR devices and vehicles. This study demonstrated that simultaneous presentation of engine sounds and vibration, which were synchronous to each other and tightly coupled with the visual flow speed, effectively reduces VIMS while experiencing motorcycling simulators. The findings not only improve practical knowledge for reducing VIMS in driving simulators but also provide evidence for understanding the mechanisms of VIMS.
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