Clinical trials evaluating the role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) in multiple myeloma have mostly included patients aged <65 years. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of auto-HCT in elderly patients with multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents. We retrospectively analyzed 2056 patients with multiple myeloma, who underwent auto-HCT in 2007–2014 (287 were aged ≥65 years). We evaluated the 100-day treatment-related mortality (TRM) and overall survival (OS) in two groups; elderly patients (≥65 years) who underwent auto-HCT compared with younger patients (<65 years). In the propensity score–matched-pair analysis used to adjust for possible selection bias, the incidence of 100-day TRM between patients aged <65 (0.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0–2.0%) and ≥65 years (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.3–3.1%) showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.31). The probability of the 5-year OS after transplantation in those aged <65 (62.5%; 95% CI: 58.6–66.1%) and ≥65 (63.5%; 95% CI: 52.2–72.7%) years was also not significantly different (p = 0.56). This study showed that the safety and efficacy of auto-HCT in elderly patients with multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents compared with younger patients were similar.
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