Efficacy and safety of dosage-escalation of low-dosage esaxerenone added to a RAS inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria: a single-arm, open-label study

Hiroshi Itoh, Sadayoshi Ito, Hiromi Rakugi, Yasuyuki Okuda, Satoshi Nishioka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors is linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular or renal damage in patients with diabetes, and the blockade of these receptors may be an effective treatment option. This open-label study with a 12-week treatment period assessed the antihypertensive (primary) and antialbuminuric (secondary) efficacy and safety of esaxerenone as an add-on therapy to a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 to <1000 mg/g•Cr). Esaxerenone was administered over 12 weeks at a starting dosage of 1.25 mg/day, which was gradually titrated to 2.5 mg/day and 5 mg/day at weeks 4, 6, or 8 according to the dosage-escalation criteria based on serum K+ levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the likelihood/occurrence of hypotension. Of the 51 patients enrolled, 44 (86.3%) reached an esaxerenone dosage of 2.5 or 5 mg/day. The changes from the baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were −13.7 mmHg (p < 0.05) and −6.2 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. Significant decreases in blood pressure occurred regardless of age, baseline systolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The urinary albumin-creatinine ratio decreased by 32.4% from the baseline (p < 0.05). Two consecutive serum K+ measurements ≥ 5.5 mEq/L occurred in one patient but resolved after dosage reduction. Esaxerenone showed antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effects and a low risk of hyperkalemia with dosage titration from 1.25 mg in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria receiving a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHypertension Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Albuminuria
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Blood Pressure
Safety
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Antihypertensive Agents
Albumins
Creatinine
Mineralocorticoid Receptors
Hyperkalemia
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Serum
Hypotension
Therapeutics
Hypertension
Kidney

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • Esaxerenone
  • Hypertension
  • Mineralocorticoid receptor blocker
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Efficacy and safety of dosage-escalation of low-dosage esaxerenone added to a RAS inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria: a single-arm, open-label study",
abstract = "The stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors is linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular or renal damage in patients with diabetes, and the blockade of these receptors may be an effective treatment option. This open-label study with a 12-week treatment period assessed the antihypertensive (primary) and antialbuminuric (secondary) efficacy and safety of esaxerenone as an add-on therapy to a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 to <1000 mg/g•Cr). Esaxerenone was administered over 12 weeks at a starting dosage of 1.25 mg/day, which was gradually titrated to 2.5 mg/day and 5 mg/day at weeks 4, 6, or 8 according to the dosage-escalation criteria based on serum K+ levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the likelihood/occurrence of hypotension. Of the 51 patients enrolled, 44 (86.3{\%}) reached an esaxerenone dosage of 2.5 or 5 mg/day. The changes from the baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were −13.7 mmHg (p < 0.05) and −6.2 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. Significant decreases in blood pressure occurred regardless of age, baseline systolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The urinary albumin-creatinine ratio decreased by 32.4{\%} from the baseline (p < 0.05). Two consecutive serum K+ measurements ≥ 5.5 mEq/L occurred in one patient but resolved after dosage reduction. Esaxerenone showed antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effects and a low risk of hyperkalemia with dosage titration from 1.25 mg in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria receiving a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor.",
keywords = "Albuminuria, Esaxerenone, Hypertension, Mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, Type 2 diabetes",
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T1 - Efficacy and safety of dosage-escalation of low-dosage esaxerenone added to a RAS inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria

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AU - Itoh, Hiroshi

AU - Ito, Sadayoshi

AU - Rakugi, Hiromi

AU - Okuda, Yasuyuki

AU - Nishioka, Satoshi

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - The stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors is linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular or renal damage in patients with diabetes, and the blockade of these receptors may be an effective treatment option. This open-label study with a 12-week treatment period assessed the antihypertensive (primary) and antialbuminuric (secondary) efficacy and safety of esaxerenone as an add-on therapy to a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 to <1000 mg/g•Cr). Esaxerenone was administered over 12 weeks at a starting dosage of 1.25 mg/day, which was gradually titrated to 2.5 mg/day and 5 mg/day at weeks 4, 6, or 8 according to the dosage-escalation criteria based on serum K+ levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the likelihood/occurrence of hypotension. Of the 51 patients enrolled, 44 (86.3%) reached an esaxerenone dosage of 2.5 or 5 mg/day. The changes from the baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were −13.7 mmHg (p < 0.05) and −6.2 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. Significant decreases in blood pressure occurred regardless of age, baseline systolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The urinary albumin-creatinine ratio decreased by 32.4% from the baseline (p < 0.05). Two consecutive serum K+ measurements ≥ 5.5 mEq/L occurred in one patient but resolved after dosage reduction. Esaxerenone showed antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effects and a low risk of hyperkalemia with dosage titration from 1.25 mg in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria receiving a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor.

AB - The stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors is linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular or renal damage in patients with diabetes, and the blockade of these receptors may be an effective treatment option. This open-label study with a 12-week treatment period assessed the antihypertensive (primary) and antialbuminuric (secondary) efficacy and safety of esaxerenone as an add-on therapy to a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 to <1000 mg/g•Cr). Esaxerenone was administered over 12 weeks at a starting dosage of 1.25 mg/day, which was gradually titrated to 2.5 mg/day and 5 mg/day at weeks 4, 6, or 8 according to the dosage-escalation criteria based on serum K+ levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the likelihood/occurrence of hypotension. Of the 51 patients enrolled, 44 (86.3%) reached an esaxerenone dosage of 2.5 or 5 mg/day. The changes from the baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were −13.7 mmHg (p < 0.05) and −6.2 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. Significant decreases in blood pressure occurred regardless of age, baseline systolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The urinary albumin-creatinine ratio decreased by 32.4% from the baseline (p < 0.05). Two consecutive serum K+ measurements ≥ 5.5 mEq/L occurred in one patient but resolved after dosage reduction. Esaxerenone showed antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effects and a low risk of hyperkalemia with dosage titration from 1.25 mg in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria receiving a renin–angiotensin system inhibitor.

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