Efficacy of a moderately low carbohydrate diet in a 36-month observational study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

Mariko Sanada, Chinatsu Kabe, Hisa Hata, Junichi Uchida, Gaku Inoue, Yoko Tsukamoto, Yoshifumi Yamada, Junichiro Irie, Shogo Tabata, Mitsuhisa Tabata, Satoru Yamada

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Abstract

We previously showed that a non-calorie-restricted, moderately low-carbohydrate diet (mLCD) is more effective than caloric restriction for glycemic and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine whether mLCD intervention is sustainable, effective, and safe over a long period, we performed a 36-month observational study. We sequentially enrolled 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and taught them how to follow the mLCD. We compared the following parameters pre- and post-dietary intervention in an outpatient setting: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), and renal function (urea nitrogen, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate). Data from 157 participants were analyzed (43 were lost to follow-up). The following parameters decreased over the period of study: HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 1.5% to 7.5 ± 1.3%, p < 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase (from 29.9 ± 23.6 to 26.2 ± 18.4 IL/L, p = 0.009). Parameters that increased were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 58.9 ± 15.9 to 61.2 ± 17.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and urea nitrogen (from 15.9 ± 5.2 to 17.0 ± 5.4 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Over 36 months, the mLCD intervention showed sustained effectiveness (without safety concerns) in improving HbA1c, lipid profile, and liver enzymes in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number528
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May 1

Fingerprint

Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet
low carbohydrate diet
glycohemoglobin
observational studies
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Observational Studies
urea nitrogen
Alanine Transaminase
alanine transaminase
Lipids
high density lipoprotein cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Urea
Nitrogen
lipids
Blood Pressure
Caloric Restriction
liver
glomerular filtration rate

Keywords

  • Low-carbohydrate diet
  • Observational study
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Sanada, M., Kabe, C., Hata, H., Uchida, J., Inoue, G., Tsukamoto, Y., ... Yamada, S. (2018). Efficacy of a moderately low carbohydrate diet in a 36-month observational study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 10(5), [528]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050528

Efficacy of a moderately low carbohydrate diet in a 36-month observational study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. / Sanada, Mariko; Kabe, Chinatsu; Hata, Hisa; Uchida, Junichi; Inoue, Gaku; Tsukamoto, Yoko; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Irie, Junichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Yamada, Satoru.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 5, 528, 01.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sanada, M, Kabe, C, Hata, H, Uchida, J, Inoue, G, Tsukamoto, Y, Yamada, Y, Irie, J, Tabata, S, Tabata, M & Yamada, S 2018, 'Efficacy of a moderately low carbohydrate diet in a 36-month observational study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes', Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 5, 528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050528
Sanada, Mariko ; Kabe, Chinatsu ; Hata, Hisa ; Uchida, Junichi ; Inoue, Gaku ; Tsukamoto, Yoko ; Yamada, Yoshifumi ; Irie, Junichiro ; Tabata, Shogo ; Tabata, Mitsuhisa ; Yamada, Satoru. / Efficacy of a moderately low carbohydrate diet in a 36-month observational study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 5.
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