Efficient walking with optimization for a planar biped walker with a torso by hip actuators and springs

Terumasa Narukawa, Masaki Takahashi, Kazuo Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on the use of passive dynamics to achieve efficient walking with simple mechanisms. A torso is added to a biped walker; and hip actuators, instead of ankle actuators, are used. A numerical approach is used to find the optimal control trajectories. A comparison between the cost functions of simple feedback control and optimal control is presented. Next, springs are added to the biped walking model at the hip joints to demonstrate the advantage of hip springs in terms of energy cost and ground conditions. The comparison between the torque costs with and without hip springs indicates that hip springs reduce the torque cost, particularly at a high walking speed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-648
Number of pages8
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jul



  • Biped walker
  • Locomotion
  • Numerical simulation
  • Optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Software
  • Mathematics(all)

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