procedure has been developed and tested for the analysis of small water samples, using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for soluble and insoluble elemental constituents separated by Nuclepore filtration. Nanogram sensitivity for samples in the 0.17-cm2 target area of a Van de Graaff accelerator proton beam permits the simultaneous determination of ~15 elements from A1 to Pb in the solids on a filter and by evaporation of a few milliliters of water on thin Mylar film. Rainwater from Tallahassee, FL, contained Al, Si, Ti, and Cr exclusively in the insoluble fraction while S, K, Ca, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Br were present principally as soluble elements. Fe and Pb were more evenly distributed between the two fractions. Surface-water samples in the Tallahassee area, from a lake and rainfall runoff from two shopping centers, showed qualitatively similar partitioning of the elements between the two fractions, although with a tendency for greater proportions to be insoluble.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry