Improvement of living environment quality of life (QOL) is increasingly attracting attention as a factor in disease prevention. We administered questionnaires to adult residents of a suburb of Kitakyushu City, Japan, in October 2009 and October 2011, with the aim of evaluating chronological changes in resident health and changes in the housing and regional environment over those two years. Cause-and-effect relations were considered through structural equation modeling (SEM) using a cross-lagged effects model and a synchronous effects model. Analysis of the results indicates that the housing and regional environment affects resident health. The present study quantified living environment value according to reported resident satisfaction. In addition, further studies with an increased sample size may be beneficial. Topics for future research include evaluation using objective indicators to strictly elucidate the causal relationship between resident health and living environment.