Endoscopic resection has been accepted as the standard treatment for intramucosal gastric tumors of differentiated type. However, the indication was limited to small tumors to achieve en bloc resection and prevent local recurrence in cases of conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) such as the strip biopsy and the cap technique. To avoid multi-fragmental resection, we have developed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as a new endoscopic resection technique. ESD is a remarkable technique, because we make it possible to remove the lesions en bloc regardless of size, shape, coexisting ulcer, and location. However, it is difficult or impossible to resect recurrent tumors en bloc in conventional EMR owing to hard fibrosis, and some patients need laparotomy. Using ESD, we can dissect the submucosal layer as we directly look at the submucosa, and remove the lesion safely and reliably even in cases of hard fibrosis. The key to treatment of recurrent tumors in ESD are as follows: (i) using enough submucosal injection solution (we use a mixture of Glyceol and 1% 1900 kDa hyaluronic acid preparation); (ii) incising the mucosa without fibrosis; (iii) understanding characteristics of various cutting devices, and changing other devices in difficult situations. In these ways we can remove the majority of the recurrent tumors en bloc. Hence, we consider that ESD is a very effective treatment which achieves excellent en bloc and complete resection rates and enables patients with intramucosal gastric tumors to a recurrent-free survival even in recurrent tumors.
- Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)
- Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)
- Flex knife
- Recurrent tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging