Energy gain and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of tokamak fusion power reactors are evaluated in this study compared with other reactor types, structural materials, and other Japanese energy sources currently in use. The reactors treated in this study are (1) a conventional physics performance international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), like a reactor based upon the ITER engineering design activity (ITER-EDA), (2) a RS (reversed shear) reactor using the reversed shear safety-factor/plasma current profile, and (3) a ST (spherical torus) reactor based upon the final version of the advanced reactor innovative engineering study ST (ARIES-ST). The input energy and CO2 emission from these reactors are calculated by multiplying the weight or cost of the fusion reactor components by the energy intensity and/or with the CO2 intensity data, which are updated as often as possible. The ITER cost estimation is estimated based on the component unit costs. The following results were obtained: (1) The RS and the ST reactor can double the energy gain and reduce CO2 emission by one-half compared with the ITER-like reactor. (2) Silicon carbide (SIC) used as the structural material of inner vessel components is best for energy gain and CO2 emission reduction. (3) The ITER-like reactor is slightly superior to a photovoltaic (PV) with regard to CO2 emission. (4) The energy gain and CO2 emission intensity of the RS reactor and the ST reactor are as excellent as those of a fission reactor and a hydro-powered generator. These results indicate that a tokamak fusion power reactor can be one of the most effective power-generating technologies both in high-energy payback gains and reduction of CO2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanical Engineering