Energy expenditure of bipedal walking is higher than that of quadrupedal walking in Japanese macaques

Masato Nakatsukasa, E. Hirasaki, Naomichi Ogihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The authors previously compared energetic costs of bipedal and quadrupedal walking in bipedally trained macaques used for traditional Japanese monkey performances (Nakatsukasa et al. [2004] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 124:248-256). These macaques used inverted pendulum mechanics during bipedal walking, which resulted in an efficient exchange of potential and kinetic energy. Nonetheless, energy expenditure during bipedal walking was significantly higher than that of quadrupedal walking. In Nakatsukasa et al. ([2004] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 124:248-256), locomotor costs were measured before subjects reached a steady state due to technical limitations. The present investigation reports sequential changes of energy consumption during 15 min of walking in two trained macaques, using carbon dioxide production as a proxy of energy consumption, as in Nakatsukasa et al. ([2004] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 124:248-256). Although a limited number of sessions were conducted, carbon dioxide production was consistently greater during bipedal walking, with the exception of some irregularity during the first minute. Carbon dioxide production gradually decreased after 1 min, and both subjects reached a steady state within 10 min. Energy expenditure during bipedalism relative to quadrupedalism differed between the two subjects. It was considerably higher (140% of the quadrupedal walking cost) in one subject who walked with more bent-knee, bent-hip gaits. This high cost strongly suggests that ordinary macaques, who adopt further bent-knee, bent-hip gaits, consume a far greater magnitude of energy during bipedal walking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-37
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume131
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Sep
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Macaca fuscata
Macaca
energy expenditure
walking
Energy Metabolism
Walking
expenditures
energy
costs
energy consumption
Carbon Dioxide
Costs and Cost Analysis
knees
gait
hips
Gait
mechanic
Hip
Knee
Proxy

Keywords

  • Bipedalism
  • Locomotor energetics
  • Presteady state
  • Quadrupedalism, macaca fuscata
  • Steady state

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Anthropology

Cite this

Energy expenditure of bipedal walking is higher than that of quadrupedal walking in Japanese macaques. / Nakatsukasa, Masato; Hirasaki, E.; Ogihara, Naomichi.

In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 131, No. 1, 09.2006, p. 33-37.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nakatsukasa, Masato ; Hirasaki, E. ; Ogihara, Naomichi. / Energy expenditure of bipedal walking is higher than that of quadrupedal walking in Japanese macaques. In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2006 ; Vol. 131, No. 1. pp. 33-37.
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