Purpose: ID4 gene is a member of the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) family proteins that inhibit DNA binding of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. The epigenetic inactivation of ID4 gene on colorectal cancer (CRC) development and its clinical significance was assessed. Experimental Design: In CRC cell lines, ID4 methylation status of the promoter region was assessed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. The mRNA expression level was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The methylation status of 9 normal epithelia, 13 adenomas, 92 primary CRCs, and 26 liver metastases was assessed by methylation-specific PCM. ID4 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue specimen. Results: CRC cell lines were shown to be hypermethylated, and mRNA expression was suppressed and could be restored by 5-aza-cytidine treatment. In clinical specimens from normal epithelia, adenomas, primary CRCs, and liver metastases, the frequency of ID4 hypermethylation was 0 of 9 (0%), 0 of 13 (0%), 49 of 92 (53%), and 19 of 26 (73%), respectively, with a significant elevation according to CRC pathological progression. Methylation status of primary CRCs significantly correlated with histopathological tumor grade (P = 0.028). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed ID4 expression of normal colon epithelia, adenomas, and unmethylated primary CRCs but not hypermethylated CRC specimens. Among 76 American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I to IV patients who had undergone curative surgical resection, overall survival was significantly poorer in patients with hypermethylated ID4 bearing tumors (P = 0.0066). Conclusions: ID4 gene is a potential tumor suppressor gene for which methylation status may play an important role in the CRC progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research