What is known and objective: Third-generation oral cephalosporins, especially cefcapene-pivoxil (CFPN-PI), have been used frequently in the Japanese dental field. In December 2014 and April 2016, the newly published clinical guidelines recommended the use of amoxicillin (AMPC). Thus, it is important to evaluate the impact of these guidelines on the prescription profiles of prophylactic antibiotics, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to analyse an interrupted time series analysis from April 2013 to March 2020 at the Department of Dentistry of Hokkaido University Hospital. A segmented regression model was used to estimate the changes in the incidence of infectious complications following tooth extraction. Prescribed antibiotic data were evaluated via days of therapy (DOT). Antibiotic costs were calculated in terms of the Japanese yen (JPY). Results and Discussion: We identified 17,825 eligible patients. The incidence rates of infectious complications (SSI + dry socket) and SSI after tooth extraction were 3.2% and 2.2%, respectively, during the entire period. The extraction of impacted third molars corresponded to 5.0% and 3.4%, respectively. However, their incidence rates were not significantly different during this period. The use of prophylactic antibiotics and antibiotic cost showed consistent trends following the implementation of guidelines. The mean DOT of CFPN-PI decreased (ranging from 4893.6 DOTs/1000 patients [March 2013 to November 2014] to 3856.4 DOTs/1000 patients [December 2014 to March 2016]; p < 0.001, and from 3856.4 DOTs/1000 patients [December 2014 to March 2016] to 2293.9 DOTs/1000 patients [April 2016 to March 2020]; p < 0.001). In contrast, the mean DOT of AMPC was found to be increased (ranging from 1379.7 DOTs/1000 patients [March 2013 to November 2014] to 3236.3 DOTs/1000 patients [December 2014 to March 2016]; p < 0.001, and from 3236.3 DOTs/1000 patients [December 2014 to March 2016] to 4597.8 DOTs/1000 patients [April 2016 to March 2020]; p < 0.001). The mean monthly cost was decreased (ranging from 905.3 JPY [March 2013 to November 2014] to 788.7 JPY [December 2014 to March 2016]; p = 0.003, and from 788.7 JPY [December 2014 to March 2016] to 614.0 JPY [April 2016 to March 2020]; p < 0.001). What is new and conclusion: After December 2014, prophylactic antibiotics were switched from CFPN-PI to AMPC, and the incidence rate of infectious complications was not significantly different over time. However, changing antibiotics is useful from a cost-effectiveness perspective.
- interrupted time series analysis
- prophylactic use
- tooth extraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)