Experimental verification of factors influencing calcium salt formation based on a survey of the development of ceftriaxone-induced gallstone-related disorder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Ceftriaxone (CTRX) forms salts with calcium (Ca) in the gall bladder and bile duct, and induces the formation of gallstones. In this study, factors of CTRX-induced gallstone formation were extracted from the results of a retrospective survey using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER), and the causal relationship between the factors and gallstone formation was investigated. From JADER, 136 patients who developed ‘gallstone-related disorder’ with CTRX as a suspected drug were extracted. The incidence of gallstone-induced adverse effects was high in patients treated with CTRX at a dose exceeding the normal daily dose and in children younger than 10 years old, suggesting that CTRX at a high level is a factor for gallstone formation. Thus, after mixing CTRX and Ca2+ at different concentrations under different pH condition, the number of particles in the solutions was measured using a Coulter counter. As a result, the number of minute particles significantly increased at all pH values when Ca2+ and CTRX were mixed at a concentration of 10 mEq/L or higher and 1.5 g/L or higher, respectively. At pH 6.5 or 7.0, visible crystals were detected when 25 mEq/L of Ca2+ and 2.0 g/L of CTRX were mixed. Based on these findings, attention should be sufficiently paid to the development of ‘gallstone-related disorder’ in pediatric patients and in patients treated with CTRX at a dose exceeding the normal dose. Furthermore, gallstone formation and growth may be promoted when CTRX and Ca2+ coexist at high concentrations under low pH conditions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1



  • Calcium
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Gallstone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this