Factors contributing to salivary human immunodeficiency virus type-1 levels measured by a Poisson distribution-based PCR method

Ryo Ikeno, Eiko Yamada, Sayaka Yamazaki, Tomoyuki Ueda, Masaki Nagata, Ritsuo Takagi, Shingo Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: To elucidate the mechanism underlying secretion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the oral cavity, by examining the relationships between various oral and systemic factors and the viral load in saliva. Methods: Plasma and saliva samples from HIV-1 infected patients were assayed using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test, version 1.0 and a Poisson distribution-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for quantifying HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Results: Forty-four pairs of samples were obtained from 18 patients. Salivary viral load was approximately 10% of the plasma viral load, but higher than the plasma load in two patients. The salivary viral DNA load was < 1% of the total HIV-1 nucleic acid load except in one patient who had more viral DNA than RNA. Multiple regression analysis showed that salivary viral load was significantly correlated with plasma viral load (partial correlation coefficient, 0.90) and the community periodontal index (–0.63). Conclusions: The present results suggest that excretion through salivary glands, but not occult bleeding, may be a major pathway of HIV-1 into the oral cavity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)996-1007
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar 1



  • HIV
  • plasma
  • Poisson distribution
  • quantification
  • saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical

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