Fetal sulcation and gyrification in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) obtained by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging

K. Sawada, K. Hikishima, A. Y. Murayama, H. J. Okano, E. Sasaki, H. Okano

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19 Citations (Scopus)


The present study characterized fetal sulcation patterns and gyrification in the cerebrum of the New World monkey group, common marmosets, using a 3D T2-weighted high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence from the fixed brain at 7-tesla ex vivo. Fetal sulcation in the marmoset cerebrum began to indent the lateral fissure and hippocampal sulcus in gestational week (GW) 12, and then the following sulci emerged: the callosal and calcarine sulci on GW 15; the superior temporal sulcus on GW 17; and the circular and occipitotemporal sulci on GW 18. The degree of cortical convolution was evaluated quantitatively based on 2D MRI slices by the gyrification index (GI) and based on 3D MRI data by sulcation index (SI). Both the mean GI and SI increased from GW 16, and were closely correlated with the cortical volume and the cortical surface area during fetal periods (their correlation coefficients marked more than 0.95). After birth, both the mean GI and SI decreased slightly by 2years of age, whereas the cortical volume and surface area continuously increased. Notably, histological analysis showed that the outer subventricular zone (oSVZ) in non-sulcal regions was thicker than that in the presumptive calcarine sulcal region on GW 13, preceding the infolding of the calcarine sulcus. The present results showed definite sulcal infolding on the cerebral cortical surface of the marmosets, with similar pattern and sequence of their emergences to other higher-order primates such as macaques and humans. Differential expansion of the oSVZ may be involved in gyral convolution and sulcal infolding in the developing cerebrum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-174
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 17


  • Basal radial glia
  • Common marmoset
  • Gyrification
  • Non-human primates
  • Outer subventricular zone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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