First indication of terrestrial matter effects on solar neutrino oscillation

A. Renshaw, K. Abe, Y. Hayato, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kishimoto, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takenaga, T. Tomura, K. Ueno, T. Yokozawa, R. A. WendellT. Irvine, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, K. P. Lee, Y. Nishimura, K. Okumura, T. McLachlan, L. Labarga, S. Berkman, H. A. Tanaka, S. Tobayama, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, M. Goldhabar, K. Bays, G. Carminati, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, W. E. Keig, N. Hong, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, T. Akiri, A. Himmel, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, T. Wongjirad, T. Ishizuka, S. Tasaka, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. N. Smith, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, C. Bronner, S. Hirota, K. Huang, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, T. Kikawa, A. Minamino, T. Nakaya, K. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, Y. Fukuda, K. Choi, Y. Itow, G. Mitsuka, P. Mijakowski, J. Hignight, J. Imber, C. K. Jung, C. Yanagisawa, H. Ishino, A. Kibayashi, Y. Koshio, T. Mori, M. Sakuda, T. Yano, Y. Kuno, R. Tacik, S. B. Kim, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, Y. Totsuka, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, Ll Marti, M. R. Vagins, J. F. Martin, P. De Perio, A. Konaka, M. J. Wilking, S. Chen, Y. Zhang, R. J. Wilkes

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Abstract

We report an indication that the elastic scattering rate of solar B8 neutrinos with electrons in the Super-Kamiokande detector is larger when the neutrinos pass through Earth during nighttime. We determine the day-night asymmetry, defined as the difference of the average day rate and average night rate divided by the average of those two rates, to be [-3.2±1.1(stat) ±0.5(syst)]%, which deviates from zero by 2.7σ. Since the elastic scattering process is mostly sensitive to electron-flavored solar neutrinos, a nonzero day-night asymmetry implies that the flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos are affected by the presence of matter within the neutrinos' flight path. Super-Kamiokande's day-night asymmetry is consistent with neutrino oscillations for 4×10-5 eV2≤Δm212≤7×10-5 eV2 and large mixing values of θ12, at the 68% C.L.

Original languageEnglish
Article number091805
JournalPhysical review letters
Volume112
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Mar 7
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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    Renshaw, A., Abe, K., Hayato, Y., Iyogi, K., Kameda, J., Kishimoto, Y., Miura, M., Moriyama, S., Nakahata, M., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, S., Sekiya, H., Shiozawa, M., Suzuki, Y., Takeda, A., Takenaga, Y., Tomura, T., Ueno, K., Yokozawa, T., ... Wilkes, R. J. (2014). First indication of terrestrial matter effects on solar neutrino oscillation. Physical review letters, 112(9), [091805]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.091805