Objective We sought to predict lymph node metastasis and tumor invasiveness in clinical T1 N0 M0 lung adenocarcinomas, and we measured fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography. Methods Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed on 44 patients with adenocarcinomas of 1 to 3 cm in size clinically staged as T1 N0 M0 before major lung resection with lymph node dissection. Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was evaluated by using the contrast ratio between the tumor and contralateral healthy lung tissue. Lymphatic and vascular invasion within tumors, pleural involvement, and grade of histologic differentiation were examined. Results The pathologic tumor stage was T1 N0 M0 in 36 patients, and a more advanced stage was found in 8 patients. Although all 22 adenocarcinomas with a contrast ratio of less than 0.5 in fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were pathologic T1 N0 M0 tumors, 8 (36%) of 22 with a contrast ratio of 0.5 or greater were of a more advanced stage than T1 N0 M0, with the difference being significant (P = .002). Adenocarcinomas with a contrast ratio of less than 0.5 showed less lymphatic and vascular invasion and less pleural involvement than those with a contrast ratio of 0.5 or greater (P = .006, P = .004, and P = .02, respectively). The grade of histologic differentiation was well differentiated in 19 of 22 adenocarcinomas with a contrast ratio of less than 0.5 (86%), which was a greater frequency than the 4 (18%) of 22 adenocarcinomas with a contrast ratio of 0.5 or greater (P < .001). Conclusion Clinical T1 N0 M0 lung adenocarcinomas with a contrast ratio of less than 0.5 usually did not have lymph node metastasis, had less tumor involvement of vessels or pleura, and were more frequently well differentiated than those with a contrast ratio of 0.5 or greater. Limited lung resection could be indicated, lymph node dissection or mediastinoscopy could be reduced, or both in this type of adenocarcinoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine