Gamma Knife surgery as sole treatment for multiple brain metastases: 2-center retrospective review of 1508 cases meeting the inclusion criteria of the JLGK0901 multi-institutional prospective study.

Toru Serizawa, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Yoshinori Higuchi, Osamu Nagano, Takuya Kawabe, Shinji Matsuda, Junichi Ono, Naokatsu Saeki, Manabu Hatano, Tatsuo Hirai

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Abstract

The authors retrospectively reviewed the results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) used as the sole treatment for brain metastases in patients who met the eligibility criteria for the ongoing JLGK0901 multi-institutional prospective trial. They also discuss the anticipated results of the JLGK0901 study. Data from 1508 consecutive cases were analyzed. All of the patients were treated at the Gamma Knife House of Chiba Cardiovascular Center or the Mito Gamma House of Katsuta Hospital between 1998 and 2007 and met the following JLGK0901 inclusion criteria: 1) newly diagnosed brain metastases, 2) 1-10 brain lesions, 3) less than 10 cm(3) volume of the largest tumor, 4) no more than 15 cm(3) total tumor volume, 5) no findings of CSF dissemination, and 6) no impairment of activities of daily living (Karnofsky Performance Scale score < 70) due to extracranial disease. At the initial treatment, all visible lesions were irradiated with GKS without upfront whole-brain radiation therapy. Thereafter, gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging was performed every 2-3 months, and new distant lesions were appropriately retreated with GKS. Patients were divided into groups according to numbers of tumors: Group A, single lesions (565 cases); Group B, 2-4 tumors (577 cases); and Group C, 5-10 tumors (366 cases). The differences in overall survival (OS) were compared between groups. The median age of the patients was 66 years (range 19-96 years). There were 963 men and 545 women. The primary tumors were in the lung in 1114 patients, gastrointestinal tract in 179, breast in 105, urinary tract in 66, and other sites in 44. The overall mean survival time was 0.78 years (0.99 years for Group A, 0.68 years for Group B, and 0.62 years for Group C). The differences between Groups A and B (p < 0.0001) and between Groups B and C (p = 0.0312) were statistically significant. Multivariate analysis revealed significant prognostic factors for OS to be sex (poor prognostic factor: male, p < 0.0001), recursive partitioning analysis class (Class I vs Class II and Class II vs III, both p < 0.0001), primary site (lung vs breast, p = 0.0047), and number of tumors (Group A vs Group B, p < 0.0001). However, no statistically difference was detected between Groups B and C (p = 0.1027, hazard ratio 1.124, 95% CI 0.999-1.265). The results of this retrospective analysis revealed an upper CI of 1.265 for the hazard ratio, which was lower than the 1.3 initially set by the JLGK0901 study. The JLGK0901 study is anticipated to show noninferiority of GKS as sole treatment for patients with 5-10 brain metastases compared with those with 2-4 in terms of OS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-52
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Volume113 Suppl
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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