## Abstract

We present and analyze a gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann- Robertson-Walker universe with dust. We construct the reduced phase space spanned by gauge-invariant quantities by using the so-called relational formalism at the classical level. The reduced phase space thereby obtained can be quantized in the same manner as an ordinary mechanical system. This quantization procedure realizes a possible resolution to the problem of time and observables in canonical quantum gravity. We analyze the classical initial singularity of the theory by evolving a wave packet backward in time and evaluating the expectation value of the scale factor. It is shown that the initial singularity of the universe is avoided by the quantum gravitational effects.

Original language | English |
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Pages | 97-100 |

Number of pages | 4 |

Publication status | Published - 2009 Dec 1 |

Event | 19th Workshop on General Relativity and Gravitation in Japan, JGRG 2009 - Tokyo, Japan Duration: 2009 Nov 30 → 2009 Dec 4 |

### Other

Other | 19th Workshop on General Relativity and Gravitation in Japan, JGRG 2009 |
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Country | Japan |

City | Tokyo |

Period | 09/11/30 → 09/12/4 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics