The Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study included subjects aged 35-74 years from participants in annual health check-up programs in Tsuruoka, Japan. The gender-specific associations of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with systemic and genetic factors was assessed cross-sectionally. Of these, 3,988 subjects had fundus photographs of sufficient quality, and early AMD was present in 12.3% and 10.3% of men and women, respectively. In men, higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of triglycerides were associated with increased odds of having early AMD after adjusting for potential risk factors (for each 1 mmol/L increase, odds ratio [OR]: 1.61 and 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-2.23 and 0.64-0.96, respectively). In women, higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were associated with increased risk of having early AMD (OR: 1.21 and 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01-1.44 and 1.03-1.53, respectively). Sub-analysis demonstrated that women with ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms had a stronger risk for early AMD (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 2.10-5.04) than men (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.02-2.69). Differential associations of early AMD with both systemic and genetic factors by sex were demonstrated in a Japanese cohort, which suggests that disease process of early AMD could be different by sex.
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