Generating visual flickers for eliciting robust steady-state visual evoked potentials at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate

Masaki Nakanishi, Yijun Wang, Yu Te Wang, Yasue Mitsukura, Tzyy Ping Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the study of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), it remains a challenge to present visual flickers at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate. For example, in an SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it is difficult to present a large number of visual flickers simultaneously on a monitor. This study aims to explore whether or how a newly proposed frequency approximation approach changes signal characteristics of SSVEPs. At 10 Hz and 12 Hz, the SSVEPs elicited using two refresh rates (75 Hz and 120 Hz) were measured separately to represent the approximation and constantperiod approaches. This study compared amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), phase, latency, scalp distribution, and frequency detection accuracy of SSVEPs elicited using the two approaches. To further prove the efficacy of the approximation approach, this study implemented an eight-target BCI using frequencies from 8-15 Hz. The SSVEPs elicited by the two approaches were found comparable with regard to all parameters except amplitude and SNR of SSVEPs at 12 Hz. The BCI obtained an averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 95.0 bits/min across 10 subjects with a maximum ITR of 120 bits/min on two subjects, the highest ITR reported in the SSVEP-based BCIs. This study clearly showed that the frequency approximation approach can elicit robust SSVEPs at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate and thereby can largely facilitate various SSVEP-related studies in neural engineering and visual neuroscience.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere99235
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 11

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evoked potentials
Visual Evoked Potentials
Bioelectric potentials
monitoring
Brain-Computer Interfaces
Brain computer interface
information exchange
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
brain
Signal to noise ratio
neurophysiology
Neurosciences
Scalp
engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Generating visual flickers for eliciting robust steady-state visual evoked potentials at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate. / Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Yu Te; Mitsukura, Yasue; Jung, Tzyy Ping.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 6, e99235, 11.06.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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