Genetic alterations involving PD-L1/PD-L2 in human malignancies

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Although immune checkpoint blockade therapy using anti-PD-1/PD-LI antibodies can induce durable remission in a variety of human malignancies, the mechanisms regulating the expression of PD-1 ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) have not been fully investigated. Recently, we newly identified structural variations (SVs) disrupting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PD-L1/PD-L2 genes in various cancers, which caused a marked upregulation of these molecules and mediated immune escape of tumor cells. Particularly, these alterations were frequently observed in virus-related lymphomas, such as adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma as well as Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma. These results suggest a pivotal role of PD-L1/PD-L2-mediated immune evasion in the pathogenesis of virus-related tumors. Here we summarize the genetic alterations involving the PD-L1/PD-L2 genes in human cancers, highlighting their relevance in virus-associated tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)841-844
Number of pages4
JournalJapanese Journal of Cancer and Chemotherapy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2019 May
Externally publishedYes


  • 3'-untranslated region
  • Genetic alteration
  • Immune evasion
  • PD-L1
  • PD-L2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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