Genetic and environmental etiology of stability and changes in self-esteem linked to personality: A Japanese twin study

Chizuru Shikishima, Kai Hiraishi, Yusuke Takahashi, Shinji Yamagata, Susumu Yamaguchi, Jyukou Andou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study used a behavioral genetic approach to examine the genetic and environmental etiology of stability and changes in self-esteem in relation to personality. Multiple genetic analyses were conducted on a longitudinal dataset of self-esteem and Big Five personality scores among young adult Japanese twins over the course of a decade. There were 1221 individuals for whom data were available on both self-esteem and the Big Five personality test at Time 1 and 365 at Time 2. The mean interval between the two times was 9.95 years. Genetic effects on self-esteem were robust, and the same genes were responsible for the stability of self-esteem in individuals over time. Nearly half of the variance in self-esteem was explained by a new genetic factor arising during the decade, suggesting that genetic innovation of self-esteem occurred in early adult life. The genetic and environmental covariance structure between personality and self-esteem in individuals was constant over a decade, providing evidence that the stability of self-esteem was largely attributable to personality. However, genetics for self-esteem independent of personality still contributed to stability over time, differentiating the concept of self-esteem from personality as a trait in terms of its genetic and environmental etiological levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-146
Number of pages7
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 15



  • Behavioral genetics
  • Genetic innovation
  • Longitudinal study
  • Personality
  • Self-esteem
  • Twin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this