Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in precancerous conditions and cancers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

91 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Alterations of DNA methylation, which result in chromosomal instability and silencing of tumor-related genes, are among the most consistent epigenetic changes observed in human cancers. Analysis of tissue specimens has revealed that DNA methylation alterations participate in multistage carcinogenesis, even from the early and precancerous stages, especially in association with chronic inflammation and/or persistent viral infection, such as chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis resulting from infection with hepatitis B or C virus. DNA methylation alterations can account for the histological heterogeneity and clinicopathological diversity of human cancers. Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 is not a secondary result of increased cell proliferative activity, but is significantly correlated with accumulation of DNA hypermethylation in CpG islands of tumor-related genes. Alteration of DNA methyltransferase 3b splicing may result in chromosomal instability through DNA hypomethylation in pericentromeric satellite regions. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation status has revealed that the DNA methylation profile at the precancerous stage is basically inherited by the corresponding cancers developing in individual patients. DNA methylation status is not simply altered at the precancerous stage; rather, DNA methylation alterations at the precancerous stage may confer vulnerability to further genetic and epigenetic alterations, generate more malignant cancers, and thus determine patient outcome. Therefore, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal indicators for carcinogenetic risk estimation and prognostication, and thus provide an avenue for cancer prevention and therapy on an individual basis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-45
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Science
Volume101
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jan
Externally publishedYes

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Precancerous Conditions
DNA Methylation
Genome
Neoplasms
Chromosomal Instability
Epigenomics
DNA
CpG Islands
DNA Fingerprinting
Methyltransferases
Virus Diseases
Chronic Hepatitis
Hepatitis B virus
Hepacivirus
Liver Cirrhosis
Genes
Carcinogenesis
Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in precancerous conditions and cancers. / Kanai, Yae.

In: Cancer Science, Vol. 101, No. 1, 01.2010, p. 36-45.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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