Because several antigenic peptides of human tumors that are recognized by T-lymphocytes have been identified, immune responses against cancer can now be artificially manipulated. Furthermore, since T-lymphocytes have been found to play an important role in the rejection of tumors by the host and also to have antigen-specific proliferative potentials and memory mechanisms, T-lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in cancer vaccination. Although multidisciplinary therapies have been attempted for the treatment of gliomas, the results remain unsatisfactory. For the development of new therapies against gliomas, it is required to identify tumor antigens as targets for specific immunotherapy. In this chapter, recent progress in research on glioma antigens is described.