A linear ubiquitin chain, which consists of ubiquitin molecules linked via their N- and C-termini, is formed by a linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) composed of HOIP, HOIL-1L, and SHARPIN, and conjugation of a linear ubiquitin chain on the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is deeply involved in NF-κB activation induced by various signals. Since abnormal activation of NF-κB is associated with inflammatory disease and malignancy, we searched for an inhibitor of LUBAC by high-throughput screening (HTS) with a Tb3+-fluorescein FRET system. As a result, we found that the fungal metabolite gliotoxin inhibits LUBAC selectively by binding to the RING-IBR-RING domain of HOIP, the catalytic center of LUBAC. Gliotoxin has been well-known as an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, though its action mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we show that gliotoxin inhibits signal-induced NF-κB activation by selectively inhibiting LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitin chain formation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine