We present experimentally and theoretically the evolution of high spatial frequency periodic ripples (HSFL) fabricated on SiC crystal surfaces by irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses in a vacuum chamber. At early stages the seed defects are mainly induced by laser pulse irradiation, leading to the reduction in the ablation threshold fluence. By observing the evolution of these surface structures under illumination with successive laser pulses, the nanocraters are made by nanoablation at defects in the SiC surface. The Mie scattering by the nanoablated craters grows the periodic ripples. The number of HSFL is enhanced with increasing pulse number. At the edge of the laser spot the Mie scattering process is still dominant, causing the fabrication of HSFL. On the periphery of the spot SiC substrate remains a semiconductor state because the electron density in the SiC induced by laser irradiation is kept low. The HSFL observed is very deep in the SiC surface by irradiating with many laser pulses. These experimental results are well explained by 3D FDTD (three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain) simulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics