GTN057, a komaroviquinone derivative, induced myeloma cells' death in vivo and inhibited c-MET tyrosine kinase

Mikio Okayama, Kota Fujimori, Mariko Sato, Koichi Samata, Koki Kurita, Hiromu Sugiyama, Yutaka Suto, Genji Iwasaki, Taketo Yamada, Fumiyuki Kiuchi, Daiju Ichikawa, Maiko Matsushita, Maki Hirao, Hisako Kunieda, Kohei Yamazaki, Yutaka Hattori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Despite the development of newly developed drugs, most multiple myeloma (MM) patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities such as t(4;14) or del17p relapse at anin early stage of their clinical course. We previously reported that a natural product,komaroviquinone (KQN), isolated from the perennial semi-shrub Dracocephalum komarovi, i.e., komaroviquinone (KQN) and its derivative GTN024 induced the apoptosis of MM cells by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but both exhibited significant hematological toxicity. Aim of this study is to clarify anti-tumor activity, safety and pharmacokinetics of GTN057, an optimization compound of KQN in vivo. Methods: ICR/SCID xenograft model of KMS11, a t(4;14) translocation-positive MM cell line, was used for in vivo study. Mice pharmacokinetics of GTN057 and the degradation products were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Results: Herein, our in vitro experiments revealed that GTN057 is much less toxic to normal hematopoietic cells, induced the apoptosis of both MM cell lines andpatient samples, including those with high-risk cytogenetic changes. A xenograft model of a high-risk MM cell line demonstrated that GTN057 significantly delayed the tumor growth with no apparent hematological or systemic toxicities in vivo. The pathological examination of GTN057-treated tumors in vivoshowed revealed apoptosis of MM cells and anti-angiogenesis. In addition to the production of ROS, GTN057 inhibited the downstream signaling of c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase a receptor forand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor. Thus, GTN057 is less toxic and is able tomay be a candidate drug for treating MM patients, via multifunctional mechanisms. We have also extensively studied the pharmacologyical analysis of GTN057. The metabolites of GTN057, (e.g.,such as GTN054), may also have anti-tumorantitumor activity. Conclusion: Natural products or and their derivatives can could be good sources of antineoplastic drugs even for high-risk cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9749-9759
Number of pages11
JournalCancer medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr
Externally publishedYes


  • hepatocyte growth factor
  • komaroviquinone
  • multiple myeloma
  • natural product
  • tyrosine kinase inhibition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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