Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE2

Yun Gi Kim, Kankanam Gamage Sanath Udayanga, Naoya Totsuka, Jason B. Weinberg, Gabriel Núñez, Akira Shibuya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

124 Citations (Scopus)


Summary Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or "dysbiosis," are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx) treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE2 synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-102
Number of pages8
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 15


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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