Background: It is estimated that by 2040 there will be 1,017,712 new cases of prostate cancer worldwide. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used as a treatment option for all disease stages. ADT, and the resulting decline in androgen levels, may indirectly affect gut microbiota. Factors affecting gut microbiota are wide-ranging; however, literature is scarce on the effects of ADT on gut microbiota and metabolome profiles in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: To study the changes of gut microbiome by ADT, this 24-week observational study investigated the relationship between testosterone levels and changes in gut microbiota in Japanese patients with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Sequential faecal samples were collected 1 and 2 weeks before ADT, and 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after ADT. Blood samples were collected at almost the same times. Bacterial 16 S rRNA gene-based microbiome analyses and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolome analyses were performed. Results: In total, 23 patients completed the study. The α- and ß-diversity of gut microbiota decreased significantly at 24 weeks after ADT (p = 0.017, p < 0.001, respectively). Relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales, Pseudomonas, and concentrations of urea, lactate, butyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate and S-adenosylmethionine changed significantly after ADT (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the abundance of Proteobacteria, a known indicator of dysbiosis, and the concentration of lactate (R = 0.49, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The decline in testosterone levels resulted in detrimental changes in gut microbiota. This dysbiosis may contribute to an increase in frailty and an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research