Objectives: Lymphocele development is the most frequently reported postoperative complication of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) performed with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). This study evaluated the efficacy of a vessel-sealing device (VSD) for the prevention of lymphocele development. Methods: A total of 120 patients who underwent LRP with PLND were prospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: PLND using a conventional technique (group 1), and PLND performed with VSD (group 2). All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning 1 month postoperatively to evaluate the maximum sectional area of the lymphoceles. Results: Lymphoceles developed in 63 cases (52.5%). One case (0.8%) was symptomatic with infection, and drainage tube placement was required. In the other 62 patients, the lymphoceles developed asymptomatically and were detected by CT scanning. There was no significant difference in the lymphocele development ratio between the two groups. However, when we defined a lymphocele over 1500 mm2 as being a significant size, lymphoceles were present in 16 of 60 patients in group 1 and 4 of 60 patients in group 2. The incidence of significant lymphoceles over 1500 mm2 in the group using VSD was much lower than that of the group without VSD (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that VSD was the only independent factor that had an effect on preventing the development of lymphoceles over 1500 mm2 (p<0.01, odds ratio=4.96). Conclusion: The results indicate that the development of large lymphoceles can be prevented by using VSD in LRP with PLND.
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