Hybrid Integration of Smart Pixel with Vertical-cavity Surface-emitting Laser Using Polyimide Bonding

Shinji Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We have developed a new three-dimensional integration technology which involves hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits by means of polyimide bonding. To demonstrate this technology, a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector arrays were fabricated on a Si substrate. The photoresponsivity of the photodetector was 0.3 AAV. The threshold current of the VCSEL was 3.1 mA and the maximum output power was 2.45 mW for a 15-μm-diameter mesa at 20 °C. The VCSEL was not lasing above 90 °C. The calculation shows the thermal resistance for the proposed hybrid structure strongly depends on the polyimide thickness. The difference in active layer temperature between the hybrid and monolithic structures is within 10 K when the thickness of the polyimide is less than 0.1 μm and the electrical power consumption is 30 mW. We also calculated the power consumption and the maximum number of pixels per chip. A lower threshold current of the VCSELs and a lower bias voltage to the Si-CMOS circuit are desired to obtain a higher I/O throughput device.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpatial Light Modulators, SLM 1997
PublisherOptica Publishing Group (formerly OSA)
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781557528209
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes
EventSpatial Light Modulators, SLM 1997 - , United States
Duration: 1997 Mar 171997 Mar 19

Publication series

NameOptics InfoBase Conference Papers


ConferenceSpatial Light Modulators, SLM 1997
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Integrated optoelectronic circuits
  • Optical interconnects
  • Smart pixels
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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