Hybrid integration of smart pixels by using polyimide bonding: Demonstration of a GaAs p-i-n photodiode/CMOS receiver

Tatsushi Nakahara, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Kouta Tateno, Shinji Matsuo, Takashi Kurokawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)


The fabrication procedure of smart pixels based on a hybrid integration of compound semiconductor photonic devices with silicon CMOS circuits is described. According to the 0.8-μm design rule, CMOS receiver/transmitter circuits are designed for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based smart pixels. And 16×16 and 2×2 banyan-switch smart-pixel chips are also designed. By using our polyimide bonding technique, we integrated GaAs pin-photodiodes hybridly on the CMOS circuits. The photodetector (PD)/CMOS hybrid receiver operated errorfree at up to 800 Mb/s. Successful optical/optical (O/O) operation (a bit rate up to 311 Mbit/s) of the 2×2 banyan-switch smart-pixel chip implemented with another VCSEL chip is also demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-216
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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