Hypothermia is believed to suppress cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis/necrosis and phase-specific/nonspecific cell cycle arrest, which are, directly or indirectly, related to a reduced energy supply. Intriguingly, hypothermia is known to improve neurological recovery of animals and humans exposed to focal brain hypoxic-ischemic injury. The underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia is unclear, although the prevention of neural cell apoptosis is thought to play a role. Herein we demonstrate that in vitro cell culture of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) under conditions of mild hypothermia (31.5°C) results in an increase in cell number relative to cells cultured under normothermic conditions (37°C). Cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting of cyclins, TUNEL assay, and immunocytochemistry of OPC differentiation markers suggest that hypothermia shifts the balance between proliferation and apoptosis/differentiation toward proliferation. A combination of transcriptome analysis, pharmacological intervention, and immunoaffinity-based assays suggests a possible involvement of the Gα13-Rho GTPase Cdc42-ERK1/2 signaling cascade and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which associate or dissociate with Gα13 protein at 37°C and 31.5°C, respectively. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of VDAC1 in the plasma membrane of OPCs. Furthermore, the exogenous addition of impermeable VDAC1 inhibitors enhanced proliferation of OPCs at 37°C. These results may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of hypothermic neuroprotection as well as the possible novel role of plasmalemmal VDAC1.
- Hypothermic neuroprotection
- Plasmalemmal VDAC1
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience