Identification of cyclopropylacetyl-(r)-carnitine, a unique chemical marker of the fatally toxic mushroom russula subnigricans

Masanori Matsuura, Suguru Kato, Yoko Saikawa, Masaya Nakata, Kimiko Hashimoto

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5 Citations (Scopus)


A toxic mushroom, Russula subnigricans, causes fatal poisoning by mistaken ingestion. In spite of the potent bioactivity, the responsible toxin had not been identified for about 50 years since its first documentation. Recently, we isolated an unstable toxin and determined the structure. The slow elucidation was partly due to the instability of the toxin and also due to misidentification of R. subnigricans for similar mushrooms. To discriminate genuine Russula subnigricans from similar unidentified Russula species, we searched for a unique chemical marker contained in the mushroom. Cyclopropylacetyl-(R)-carnitine specific to R. subnigricans was identified as a novel compound whose 1H-NMR signals appearing in the upfield region were easily recognizable among the complicated signals of the crude extract.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)602-608
Number of pages7
JournalChemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016



  • Cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acid
  • Cyclopropylacetyl-(R)-carnitine
  • Mushroom poisoning
  • Russula subnigricans
  • Russulaceae
  • Russuphelin G

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Chemistry(all)

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