Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. <sup>18</sup> F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (<sup>18</sup> F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (MAC-IRIS) that was successfully followed up using <sup>18</sup> F-FDG PET/CT. Case presentation: A 44-year-old homosexual Japanese man was referred to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and found to be HIV positive. After the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the patient's mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and bilateral infiltrates appeared in the upper lung fields. <sup>18</sup> F-FDG PET/CT was performed five months after the initiation of cART and showed intense accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) corresponding to the lesions of infiltration as well as the mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. A bronchial wash culture and pathology findings led to a diagnosis of MAC-IRIS. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy with rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin was started. One year after the chemotherapy was initiated, there was a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the area of the lesions except in the mediastinal lymph node. This implied incomplete resolution of the MAC-IRIS-related inflammation. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was continued because of the residual lesion. To date, the patient has not experienced a recurrence of MAC-IRIS, a period of nine months. Conclusion: We present a case of MAC-IRIS in an HIV-infected patient whose disease FDG PET/CT is useful for evaluating the disease activity of NTM-IRIS and assessing the appropriate duration of anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy for NTM-IRIS in HIV-infected patients.
- <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
- Mycobacterium avium complex
- Nontuberculous mycobacteria
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging