Immune-resistant mechanisms in cancer immunotherapy

Yutaka Kawakami, Shigeki Ohta, Mohammad A. Sayem, Nobuo Tsukamoto, Tomonori Yaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) such as PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (Abs) and CTLA4 Abs and T cell-based adoptive cell therapies are effective for patients with various cancers. However, response rates of ICI monotherapies are still limited due to lack of immunogenic antigens and various immune-resistant mechanisms. The latter includes adaptive immune resistance that is caused by anti-tumor T cells (e.g. PD-L1 induced by IFN-γ from T cells) and primary immune resistance that is caused by cancer cells (e.g. immunosuppressive cytokines produced by cancer cells). Further understanding of the immune-resistant mechanisms, which may be possible through comparative analyses of responders and non-responders to the immunotherapies, will lead to the identification of new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for development of effective cancer immuno therapies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Oncology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020 Jan 1



  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • Immunometabolism
  • Microbiota
  • Neo-antigen
  • Oncogene
  • TGF-β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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