The radiological modalities that are currently utilized as critical components in clinical medicine have also been adapted to small-animal imaging, among which are ultrasound imaging, X-ray computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT). Optical imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence imaging (FLI) are approaches that are commonly used in small animals. Longitudinal surveys of living (i.e., nonsacrificed) animal models with these modalities provide some clues for the development of clinical applications. The techniques are absolutely essential for translational research. However, there are currently few tools available with sufficient spatial or temporal resolution ideal for all experimental studies. In this chapter, we provide a rationale and techniques for visualizing target cells in living small animals and an overview of the advantages and limitations of current imaging technology. Finally, we introduce a humanized mouse and a novel in vivo imaging system that we have developed. We also discuss real-time observations of reconstructs and clinical manifestations.