Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder and a risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Recently it was hypothesized that subtle acquired renal injury such as renal microvascular and tubulointerstitial damage induces salt-sensitive hypertension. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between blood pressure and renal abnormalities in the Japanese general population. The participants in this community-based, cross-sectional study were 1,965 subjects over 40 years old, without renal insufficiency and antihypertensive medication. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and beta2-microglobulin-creatinine ratio (UBCR) were measured in single spot urine samples, as markers of renal microvascular and tubulointerstitial damage, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation of blood pressure with UACR and UBCR, but not with estimated glomerular filtration rate. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the increases in UACR and UBCR were independently associated with hypertension, after adjustment for possible confounders. Higher levels of UACR (≥5.9 mg g -1) and UBCR (≥145 μg g -1) were associated with a significantly higher risk of hypertension, compared with UACR ≤5.8 mg g -1 and UBCR 84.5 μg g -1, respectively. Furthermore, there was a positive relationship between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure in subjects with high UBCR tertile. This study showed that the increases in urinary albumin and beta2-microglobulin were independently associated with blood pressure in a general population. These renal abnormalities may be differentially related to the development of hypertension.
- salt intake
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine