Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Navigation in Liver Surgery

Taiga Wakabayashi, Andrea Benedetti Cacciaguerra, Yuta Abe, Enrico Dalla Bona, Daniele Nicolini, Federico Mocchegiani, Yasuo Kabeshima, Marco Vivarelli, Go Wakabayashi, Yuko Kitagawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Background:Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence has proven to be a high potential navigation tool during liver surgery; however, its optimal usage is still far from being standardized.Methods:A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed for English articles that contained the information of dose and timing of ICG administration until February 2021. Successful rates of tumor detection and liver segmentation, as well as tumor/patient background and imaging settings were also reviewed. The quality assessment of the articles was performed in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN).Results:Out of initial 311 articles, a total of 72 manuscripts were obtained. The quality assessment of the included studies revealed usually low; only 9 articles got qualified as high quality. Forty articles (55%) focused on open resections, whereas 32 articles (45%) on laparoscopic and robotic liver resections. Thirty-four articles (47%) described tumor detection ability, and 25 articles (35%) did liver segmentation ability, and the others (18%) did both abilities. Negative staining was reported (42%) more than positive staining (32%). For tumor detection, majority used the dose of 0.5 mg/kg within 14 days before the operation day, and an additional administration (0.02-0.5 mg/kg) in case of longer preoperative interval. Tumor detection rate was reported to be 87.4% (range, 43%-100%) with false positive rate reported to be 10.5% (range, 0%-31.3%). For negative staining method, the majority used 2.5 mg/body, ranging from 0.025 to 25 mg/body. For positive staining method, the majority used 0.25 mg/body, ranging from 0.025 to 12.5 mg/body. Successful segmentation rate was 88.0% (range, 53%-100%).Conclusion:The time point and dose of ICG administration strongly needs to be tailored case by case in daily practice, due to various tumor/patient backgrounds and imaging settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1025-1034
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun 1


  • ICG fluorescence
  • indocyanine green
  • liver segmentation
  • liver surgery
  • tumor detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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