Background: Postoperative complications have a negative impact on overall survival after esophagectomy because systemic inflammation may induce residual cancer cell growth. A solution that could suppress micrometastasis is neoadjuvant therapy; however, to date, no study has shown that neoadjuvant therapy suppresses proliferation of cancer cells due to postoperative complications after esophagectomy. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of neoadjuvant therapy on poor long-term outcomes of postoperative complications in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: In total, 431 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. We investigated the relationship between complications, such as pneumonia, and long-term oncologic outcomes with and without neoadjuvant therapy. Results: Among the patients, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 69.5% and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 59.0%. The patients were categorized into two groups: the neoadjuvant therapy (+) group (n = 217) and neoadjuvant therapy (−) group (n = 214). Among patients not undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, patients with pneumonia or pyothorax had significantly poorer OS and DFS than patients without these complications. However, among patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, there were no significant differences in long-term outcomes, regardless of presence of complications. On multivariate analysis, pneumonia (p = 0.003), pyothorax (p < 0.001), and chylothorax (p = 0.002) were identified as predictors of death in the neoadjuvant therapy (−) group. Conclusion: The negative impact of postoperative complications on long-term prognoses can be reduced by performing neoadjuvant therapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
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