This paper presents an inkjet printing method for the fabrication of entire microfluidic multianalyte chemical sensing devices made from paper suitable for quantitative analysis, requiring only a single printing apparatus. An inkjet printing device is used for the fabrication of three-dimensional hydrophilic microfluidic patterns (550-μm-wide flow channels) and sensing areas (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm squares) on filter paper, by inkjet etching, and thereby locally dissolving a hydrophobic poly(styrene) layer obtained by soaking of the filter paper in a 1 wt % solution of poly(styrene) in toluene. In a second step, the same inkjet printing device is used to print "chemical sensing inks", comprising the necessary reagents for colorimetric analytical assays, into well-defined areas of the patterned microfluidic paper devices. The arrangement of the patterns, printed inks, and sensing areas was optimized to obtain homogeneous color responses. The results are "all-inkjet-printed" chemical sensing devices for the simultaneous determination of pH, total protein, and glucose in clinically relevant concentration ranges for urine analysis (0.46-46 μM for human serum albumin, 2.8-28.0 mM for glucose, and pH 5-9). Quantitative data are obtained by digital color analysis in the L*a*b* color space by means of a color scanner and a simple computer program.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry