Integration of micro artificial muscle cells using electro-conjugate fluid

Kenjiro Takemura, Fumiya Yajima, Shinichi Yokota, Kazuya Edamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


An artificial muscle is one of the key technologies for soft robots. This paper describes design, fabrication, and characterization of an artificial muscle cell using an electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) and integration of the cells. The ECF is a kind of dielectric and functional fluid, which generates a powerful jet flow or ECF jet under an electrostatic field applied with an electrode pair. It is experimentally clarified that the smaller electrodes generate a more powerful ECF jet with constant voltage applied. The authors propose in this study a new type of micro artificial muscle cell using electro-conjugate fluid (ECF micro artificial muscle cell). This soft actuator having a power source inside is compact enough for integration. By integrating a large number of cells, we can realize a macro-sized artificial muscle. In this paper, we fabricate a prototype of ECF micro artificial muscle cell (Ø 12.5 mm × 13 mm), and integrate four cells into a 2 × 2 ECF artificial muscle actuator showing larger stroke and force. The maximum stroke and force are 1.56 mm and 320.5 mN with a single cell, and they are increased to be 2.8 mm and 504.1 mN with the 2 × 2 ECF artificial muscle actuator.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)348-353
Number of pages6
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jun 15
Externally publishedYes


  • Functional fluids
  • Micro actuators
  • Soft actuators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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